E-ISSN 2636-834X
 

Review Article 


Comorbid disorders in depression, depression as comorbidity: a review of studies from Turkey

Bilge Buršak AnnagŘr, Haluk Asuman Sava■.

Abstract
In the current literature, there are many studies showing comorbid other axis-I disorders seen in major depressive disorder. Most prominent findings of these studies is not only the high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in major depressive disorder but also their effects on the onset, course and the treatment of it. In clinical studies, presence of any psychiatric comorbidity was shown to be among the factors causing increase in relapse, recurrence, chronicity, residual symptoms, suicide tendency and psychosocial problems in depression. There are a few studies conducted in Turkey that show comorbid other psychiatric disorders in major depressive disorder. They were limited to restricted areas and not constituted a cathment area study property. Hence, they actually are far away from sufficient information in general and about the differences of culture. In our country, comorbidity studies were usually done about the depression comorbidity seen in other Axis-I psychiatric disorders. With this paper, reviewing the studies that were conducted in Turkey and have investigated comorbid Axis-I disorders seen in depression and comorbid depression seen in Axis-I were aimed.

Key words: Comorbidity, axis-I disorders, major depression


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Bilge Buršak AnnagŘr
Articles by Haluk Asuman Sava■
on Google
on Google Scholar


REFERENCES
1. Keller MB, Klerman GL, Lavori PW, Coryell W, Endicott J, Taylor J.Long-term outcome of episodes of major depression. Clinical andpublic health significance. JAMA. 1984;252:788-792. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
2. Yaz├Żc├Ż O. Depresif Bozukluklarda E├żtan├Ż. Psikiyatri D├╝nyas├Ż.2001;5:89-96.
3. Wu LT, Kouzis AC, Leaf PJ. Influence of comorbid alcohol and psychiatric disorders on utilization of mental health services in the National Comorbidity Survey. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:1230-1236. [Pubmed]   
4. Sanderson WC, Beck AT, Beck J. Syndrome comorbidity in patients with major depression or dysthymia: prevalence and temporal relationships. Am J Psychiatry. 1990;147:1025-1028. [Pubmed]   
5. Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Zhao S, et al. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994;51:8-19. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
6. Kessler RC, Nelson CB, McGonagle KA, et al. Comorbidity of DSM-III-R major depressive disorder in the general population:results from the US National Comorbidity Survey. Br J Psychiatry.1996;168:17-30.
7. Regier DA, Burke JD, Burke KC. Comorbidity of affective and anxiety disorders in the NIMH epidemiolojic catchment area program. In: Maser JD, Colinger CT, (editors). Comorbidity of Mood and Anxiety Disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Pres, 1990,p:113-123.
8. Kessler RC, Nelson CB, McGonagle KA, et al. The epidemiology of co-occurring addictive and mental disorders: implications for prevention and service utilization. Am J Orthopsychiatry.1996;66:17-31. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
9. Mueller TI, Lavori PW, Keller MB, et al. Prognostic effect of the variable course of alcoholism on the 10-year course of depression.Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151:701-6. [Pubmed]   
10. Paykel ES, Ramana R, Cooper Z, Hayhurst H, Kerr J, Barocka A.Residual symptoms after partial remission: an important outcome in depression. Psychol Med. 1995;25:1171-80. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
11. Fawcett J, Scheftner WA, Fogg L, Clark DC, Young MA, Hedeker D.Time-related predictors of suicide in major affective disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1990;147:1189-94. [Pubmed]   
12. Foster T, Gillespie K, McClelland R, Patterson C. Risk factors for suicide independent of DSM-III-R Axis I disorder. Casecontrol psychological autopsy study in Northern Ireland. Br J Psychiatry.1999;175:175-9. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
13. Fava M, Abraham M, Alpert J, Nierenberg AA, Pava JA, Rosenbaum JF. Gender differences in Axis I comorbidity among depressed outpatients. J Affect Disord. 1996;38:129-33. [DOI via Crossref]   
14. Schatzberg AF, Samson JA, Rothschild AJ, Bond TC, Regier DA.McLean Hospital depression research facility: earlyonset phobic disorders and adult-onset major depression. Br J Psychiatry.1998;34:29-34
15. Zimmerman M, McDermut W, Mattia JI. Frequency of anxiety disorders in psychiatric outpatients with major depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:1337-1340. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
16. Melartin TK, Ryts├Ąl├Ą HJ, Leskel├Ą US, Lestel├Ą-Mielonen PS,Sokero TP, Isomets├Ą ET. Current comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among DSM-IV major depressive disorder patients in psychiatric care in the Vantaa Depression Study. J Clin Psychiatry.2002;63:126-34. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
17. McDermut W, Mattia J, Zimmerman M. Comorbidity burden and its impact on psychosocial morbidity in depressed outpatients. J Affect Disord. 2001;65:289-95. [DOI via Crossref]   
18. Sato T, Sakado K, Nishioka K, Uehara T, Sato S, Kasahara Y.The relationship of DSM-III-R personality disorder to clinical variables in patients with major depression: possible difference between personality disorder clusters. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci.1996;50:95-100. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
19. Sanderson WC, Wetzler S, Beck AT, et al. Prevalence of personality disorders in patients with major depression and dysthymia.Psychiatry Res. 1992;42:93-99. [DOI via Crossref]   
20. Fava M, Alpert JE, Borus JS, et al. Patterns of personality disorder comorbidity in early-onset versus late-onset major depression.Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153:1308-12. [Pubmed]   
21. Zimmerman M, Chelminski I, McDermut W. Major depressive disorder and axis I diagnostic comorbidity. J Clin Psychiatry.2002;63:187-9. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
22. Elbozan B, Kaya B, Yalva├ž D, Emul HM, Kaya M, ├ťnal S. Bir ├╝niversite psikiyatri klini├░inde yatarak tedavi g├Âren depresyon hastalar├Żn├Żn baz├Ż sosyodemografik ve klinik ├Âzellikler y├Ân├╝nden incelenmesi. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi. 2003;4:167-74.
23. Aslan S, Demir EY. Yineleyici ve Tek D├Ânem Major Depresif Bozuklu├░u Olan Hastalar├Żn Ki├żilik ve Affektif Miza├ž ├ľzellikleri.Klinik Psikiyatri. 2008;11:61-71.
24. Buturak ├×V, Ba├żterzi AD, Ertekin Yaz├Żc├Ż A, Yaz├Żc├Ż K, Tot Acar ├×. Comorbid Disorders In Outpatients With Major Depressive Disorder And Their Sociodemographical Aspects. Journal of Mood Disorders 2011;1:7-13.
25. Annag├╝r BB, Tamam L. Major Depresyon Hastalar├Żnda Di├░er Psikiyatrik Bozukluklar. Anatol J Clin Investig. 2010;4:111-17.
26. Fidaner H, Alk├Żn T. Mikst Anksiyete Depresyon ve E├żtan├Żl├Ż Durumlar. Duygudurum Dizisi. 2001;4:169-76.
27. Gorman JM. Comorbid depression and anxiety spectrum disorders. Depress Anxiety. 1996;4:160-68. [DOI via Crossref]   
28. Bakish D, Habib R, Hooper CL. Mixed anxiety and depression:diagnosis and treatment options. CNS Drugs. 1998;9:271-80. [DOI via Crossref]   
29. T├╝kel R, Demir T, K├Żz├Żltan E, Demir D. Sosyal Fobide Klinik ├ľzellikler: 42 Olgunun De├░erlendirilmesi. N├Âropsikiyatri Ar├żivi.1997;34:103-12.
30. Dilbaz N, G├╝z H. Sosyal Kayg├Ż Bozukluklar├Żnda Cinsiyet Farkl├Żl├Żklar├Ż. N├Âropsikiyatri Ar├żivi 2002;38:79-86.
31. Turan M, ├çilli AS, A├żk├Żn R, Herken H, Kaya N, Kucur R. Sosyal Fobinin Di├░er Psikiyatrik Hastal├Żklarla Birlikteli├░i. Klinik Psikiyatri.2000;3:170-175.
32. Sayar K, Solmaz M, ├ľzt├╝rk M, ├ľzer ├ľA, Ar├Żkan M. Yayg├Żn Sosyal Fobi Hastalar├Żnda ├çekingen Ki├żilik Bozuklu├░u ve Psikopatolojiye Etkileri. Klinik Psikiyatri. 2000;3:163-169.
33. Bayramkaya E, Toros F, ├ľzge C. Ergenlerde Sosyal Fobi ile Depresyon, ├ľzkavram, Sigara Aras├Żndaki ├Łli├żki. Klinik Psikofarmakoloji B├╝lteni. 2005;15:165-73.
34. Kara H, A├░arg├╝n MY, Bilgin H, K├Żnc├Żr F. Panik Bozukluklarda Major Depresyon Prevalans├Ż ve Major Depresyonun E├żlik Etti├░i Hastalar├Żn Klinik ├ľzellikleri. D├╝├ż├╝nen Adam. 1994;7;23-29.
35. Konkan R, Yal├ž├Żnkaya S, Erk├Żran M, Erkmen H. Panik Bozuklu├░u ve Komorbid Tan├Żlar. D├╝├ż├╝nen Adam. 2003;6:219-22.
36. Yalu├░ ├Ł, Kocaba├żo├░lu N, Aydo├░an G, G├╝nel B. Obsesif Kompulsif Bozukluk ve Panik Bozuklukta Depresyon ve Ki├żilik Bozuklu├░u Komorbiditesi. D├╝├ż├╝nen Adam. 2003;16:28-34.
37. ├ľzkan M, ├ľzen ├×, Ertun├ž N. Panik Bozuklu├░una Komorbid Eksen I Bozukluklar├Żn├Żn Olu├żumunda Travmatik Ya├żam Olaylar├Żn├Żn Rol├╝.Klinik Psikiyatri. 2005;8:53-59.
38. Stahl SM. Temel psikofarmakoloji. N├Ârobilimsel temeli ve pratik uygulamalar├Ż. (├çev. Ed. B Taneli, Y Taneli). Yelkovan Yay├Żnc├Żl├Żk,├Łstanbul, 2003.
39. Zimmerman M, Chelminski I. Clinician recognition of anxiety disorders in depressed outpatients. J Psychiatr Res 2003; 37:325-33. [DOI via Crossref]   
40. ├ľzcan M, U├░uz F, ├çilli AS. Ayaktan Psikiyatri Hastalar├Żnda Yayg├ŻnAnksiyete Bozuklu├░u Yayg├Żnl├Ż├░├Ż ve Ek Tan├Żlar. T├╝rk PsikiyatriDergisi. 2006;17:276-285. [Pubmed]   
41. Moffitt TE, Harrington H, Caspi A, et al. Depression and generalized anxiety disorder: cumulative and sequential comorbidity in abirth cohort followed prospectively to age 32 years. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64:651-60. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
42. Rickels K, Rynn M. Overview and clinical presentation of generalized anxiety disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2001;24:1-17. [DOI via Crossref]   
43. Zitterl W, Lenz G, Mairhofer A, Zapotoczky HG. Obsessive compulsive disorder:Course and interaction with depression.Psychopathology. 1990;23:73-80. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
44. Be├żiro├░lu L, U├░uz F, Sa├░lam M, Y├Żlmaz E, A├░arg├╝n MY, A├żk├Żn R.Obsesif kompulsif bozuklukta ya├żam kalitesi ile ilgili etmenler.Anadolu Psikiyatri. 2007;8:5-13.
45. Demet MM, Deveci A, Deniz F, Ta├żk├Żn EO, ├×im├żek E, YurtseverF. Obsesif kompulsif bozuklukta sosyodemografik ├Âzellikler ve fenomenoloji. Anadolu Psikiyatri. 2005;6:133-44.
46. U├░uz F, A├żk├Żn R, ├çilli AS. Obsesif Kompulsif Bozuklu├░un EksenI ve Eksen II Bozukluklar├Ż ile Birlikteli├░i. T├╝rkiye’de Psikiyatri.2006;8:1-5.
47. T├╝rkbay T, Doruk A, Erman H, S├Âhmen T. Obsesif KompulsifBozuklu├░un Belirti Da├░├Żl├Żm├Żn├Żn ve Komorbiditesinin ├çocuk veErgenler ile Eri├żkinler Aras├Żnda Kar├ż├Żla├żt├Żr├Żlmas├Ż. Klinik Psikiyatri2000;3:86-91.
48. Brady KT, Killeen TK, Brewerton T, Lucerini S. Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders and posttraumatic stres disorder. J ClinPsychiatry 2000;61:22-32. [Pubmed]   
49. Tural ├ť, Tolun HG, Karakaya I, Erol A, Y├Żld├Żz M, Erdo├░an S.Marmara Depremzedelerinde Travma Sonras├Ż Stres bozuklu├░una E├żlik Eden Ba├żka Bir ruhsal Hastal├Żk Geli├żiminin Yordalay├Żc├Żlar├Ż.T├╝rk Psikiyatri Dergisi 2001;12:175-83.
50. ├ľzg├╝ler NE, Maner F, ├çobano├░lu S, Aker T, Karamustafal├Żo├░lu O.Ya├żl├Żlarda Travma Sonras├Ż Stres Bozuklu├░unda E├ż tan├Ż ├ľzellikleri.D├╝├ż├╝nen Adam. 2003;17:141-45.
51. Bridges RN, Goldberg DP. Somatic presentation of DSMIII Psychiatric Disorder in primary care. J Psychosom Res.1985;29:563-69. [DOI via Crossref]   
52. Hamilton M. Frequency of symptoms in melancholia (DepressiveIllness). Br J Psychiatry 1990; 154:201-206. [DOI via Crossref]   
53. Akiskal HS. Diagnosis and classification of affective disorders.Psychiatr Dev. 1983;2:123-60.
54. K├Żl├Ż├ž C. T├╝rkiye Ruh Sa├░l├Ż├░├Ż Profili: Eri├żkin n├╝fusta hastal├Żklar├Żn yayg├Żnl├Ż├░├Ż, ili├żkili fakt├Ârler, yeti yitimi ve ruh sa├░l├Ż├░├Ż hizmeti kullan├Żm├Ż sonu├žlar├Ż. TC sa├░l├Żk Bakanl├Ż├░├Ż, Ankara, 1998.
55. O├░uzhano├░lu NK,├çulha F, ├ťlkero├░lu F. Somatoform Bozukluk Tan├Żs├Ż alan Hastalarda Anksiyete ve Depresyon. D├╝├ż├╝nen Adam1995;8:37-42.
56. Kayg├Żs├Żz A, Alk├Żn T. Konversiyon Bozuklu├░unda I. ve II. Eksen Ruhsal Bozukluk E├żtan├Żlar├Ż. T├╝rk Psikiyatri Dergisi 1999;10:33-39.
57. U├░uz ├×, Toros F. Konversiyon Bozuklu├░unda Sosyodemografik ve Klinik ├ľzellikler. T├╝rk Psikiyatri Dergisi. 2003;14:51-58.
58. Dilbaz N, Bitlis V, do├░an S, Usseli I, Erdo├░an S. Konversiyon Bozuklu├░u Tan├Żs├Ż Alan Hastalarda Psikiyatrik Belirtiler. D├╝├ż├╝nen Adam. 1994;7:5-9.
59. G├Âkta├ż K, Kaya N, ├çilli AS. Psikiyatri poliklini├░ine ba├żvuran konversiyon bozuklu├░u olan hastalar├Żn sosyodemografik ve klinik├Âzellikleri. Genel T├Żp Derg. 2003;13:167-170.
60. Robins LN, Locke BZ, Regier DA. An overview of psychiatric disorders in America, Psychiatric Disorders in America: The epidemiologic catchment area study. LN Robins, DA Regier(Editors), New York, The Free Press, 1991:328-366.
61. Kaplan HI, Sadock BJ. Alcohol Related Disorder. Synopsis of Psychiatry, Kaplan and Sadock (Editors), Baltimore, Maryland,1998:391-407.
62. Ar├Żkan Z, ├çepik Kuruo├░lu A, Eltutan H, I├ż├Żk E. Alkol Ba├░├Żml├Żl├Ż├░├Ż veDepresyon. D├╝├ż├╝nen Adam. 1999;12:22-26.
63. Uzun ├ľ, Cansever A, ├ľzg├╝rta├ż A, Bozkurt A, Ate├ż A. AlkolBa├░├Żml├Żl├Ż├░├Ż, Depresyon ve Serum Folat D├╝zeyleri. N├ÂropsikiyatriAr├żivi. 2002 39:53-57.
64. Hanta├ż Y, Maner F, Erk├Żran M, Turan F, G├Âkalp P. Alkol-MaddeKullan├Żm Bozuklu├░u Olan Kad├Żnlarda Yeme ├ľzellikleri ve YemeBozukluklar├Ż Taramas├Ż. D├╝├ż├╝nen Adam. 2003;16:24-27.
65. ├Łnce A, Do├░ruer Z, T├╝rk├žapar MH. Erken ve Ge├ž Ba├żlang├Ż├žl├Ż ErkekAlkol Ba├░├Żml├Żlar├Żnda Sosyodemografik, Klinik ve Psikopatolojik├ľzelliklerin Kar├ż├Żla├żt├Żr├Żlmas├Ż. Klinik Psikiyatri. 2002;5:82-91.
66. Evren C, Er FO, Erk├Żran M, ├çakmak D. Tedavi Aray├Ż├ż├ŻndaOlan Eroin Ba├░├Żml├Żlar├Żnda I. Eksen Psikiyatrik KomorbiditeSosyodemografik ve Madde Kullan├Żm ├ľzellikleri ile ├Łli├żkisi. KlinikPsikiyatri. 2002;5:92-104.

How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Bilge Buršak AnnagŘr, Haluk Asuman Sava■. [Comorbid disorders in depression, depression as comorbidity: a review of studies from Turkey]. PBS. 2011; 1(2): 87-94. Turkish. doi:10.5455/jmood.20110618110559


Web Style

Bilge Buršak AnnagŘr, Haluk Asuman Sava■. [Comorbid disorders in depression, depression as comorbidity: a review of studies from Turkey]. http://www.pbsciences.org/?mno=4824 [Access: September 28, 2021]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/jmood.20110618110559


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Bilge Buršak AnnagŘr, Haluk Asuman Sava■. [Comorbid disorders in depression, depression as comorbidity: a review of studies from Turkey]. PBS. 2011; 1(2): 87-94. Turkish. doi:10.5455/jmood.20110618110559



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Bilge Buršak AnnagŘr, Haluk Asuman Sava■. [Comorbid disorders in depression, depression as comorbidity: a review of studies from Turkey]. PBS. (2011), [cited September 28, 2021]; 1(2): 87-94. Turkish. doi:10.5455/jmood.20110618110559



Harvard Style

Bilge Buršak AnnagŘr, Haluk Asuman Sava■ (2011) [Comorbid disorders in depression, depression as comorbidity: a review of studies from Turkey]. PBS, 1 (2), 87-94. Turkish. doi:10.5455/jmood.20110618110559



Turabian Style

Bilge Buršak AnnagŘr, Haluk Asuman Sava■. 2011. [Comorbid disorders in depression, depression as comorbidity: a review of studies from Turkey]. Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 1 (2), 87-94. Turkish. doi:10.5455/jmood.20110618110559



Chicago Style

Bilge Buršak AnnagŘr, Haluk Asuman Sava■. "[Comorbid disorders in depression, depression as comorbidity: a review of studies from Turkey]." Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences 1 (2011), 87-94. Turkish. doi:10.5455/jmood.20110618110559



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Bilge Buršak AnnagŘr, Haluk Asuman Sava■. "[Comorbid disorders in depression, depression as comorbidity: a review of studies from Turkey]." Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences 1.2 (2011), 87-94. Print.Turkish. doi:10.5455/jmood.20110618110559



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Bilge Buršak AnnagŘr, Haluk Asuman Sava■ (2011) [Comorbid disorders in depression, depression as comorbidity: a review of studies from Turkey]. Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 1 (2), 87-94. Turkish. doi:10.5455/jmood.20110618110559