INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS

Thank you for choosing to submit your paper to Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (PBS). These instructions will ensure we have everything required so your paper can move through peer review, production, and publication smoothly. Please take the time to read and follow them as closely as possible, as doing so will ensure your paper matches the journal's requirements.

Authorship Responsibility
By submitting a manuscript to Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, all persons included as authors agree that they have reviewed and approved the manuscript prior to submission, and that they accept responsibility for the information contained in the submission. Authorship credit should be based on: 
1) Substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 
2) Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 
3) Final approval of the version to be published.

Authors should meet conditions in 1, 2, and 3. In multicenter studies, the individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship/contribution defined above and editors will ask these individuals to complete specific author and conflict of interest disclosure forms. All authors must sign a copyright transfer form. The names of all authors must be placed under the title of the manuscript. Individuals who were not principal researchers or writers should not be listed as authors but, should be acknowledged instead for their ancillary role in an acknowledgment footnote. By submitting original research, the authors agree that the original research data are available for review upon a formal request from the editor.

All forms of support, including pharmaceutical industry support, must be acknowledged in the author’s footnote in the Title Page section. Also, authors must disclose in their cover letter any commercial or financial involvements that might present an appearance of a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, including (but not limited to) institutional or corporate affiliations not already specified in the author’s footnote, paid consultancies, stock ownership or other equity interests, and patent ownership. This information will be kept confidential and will not be shared with reviewers.

At the core of this process is rigorous, thoughtful editorial evaluation and peer review, which we believe is the best way to assess scientific research:
1)  We are committed to acting with integrity and to the high ethical standards shared across the scientific community. We expect authors and reviewers to do the same.
2)  We respect the confidentiality of submissions to our journals and will not share information about a manuscript or peer review process with individuals outside of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences without permission, unless deemed necessary under exceptional circumstances. Our editorial teams set specific peer-review policies that reflect the norms and standards of the different communities we serve. We will continue to evaluate our policies surrounding peer review as community norms evolve.
3)  We believe transparency is essential for trust in the scientific process and that disclosure of competing interests is a critical aspect of this transparency. We require that authors declare any possible or perceived conflicts related to their submitted work and that editors not be involved in decisions about papers with which they have a direct conflict of interest. As professional editors, we do not accept honoraria or prizes for talks, appearances, or other activities directly related to our editorial roles at Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.
4)  We are committed to ensuring that our peer review processes are rigorous, fair, and timely, and that the independent decisions we make are based on the scientific content of submissions and are evidence-supported. We work to ensure constructive, professional dialogue between authors, reviewers, and our editorial teams.
5)  We are mindful that any evaluation process underpinned by human judgments is subject to biases. We are committed to trying to minimize bias in our decision making, including through ensuring diversity in our editorial teams, advisory boards, and in our selections of expert reviewers.
6)  We work to safeguard the integrity of the published record by assessing reported or suspected misconduct. We are committed to due process when assessing any potential scientific misconduct and understand the need to make the conclusions of investigations that may impact future research publicly available as soon as possible.
7)  We make independent decisions on submissions and when investigating concerns regarding scientific misconduct. Cell Press is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and our policies are informed by the COPE guidelines.

Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences is committed to the highest standards of research and publication ethics. The journal does not allow any form of plagiarism. All submitted manuscripts are screened with plagiarism software (iThenticate). to detect instances of overlapping and similar text. High similarity scores even more than 10% may lead rejection of a manuscript even after acceptance. The editors will act in accordance with the relevant international rules of publication and research ethics (COPE guidelinesICMJE RecommendationsCSE White Paper on Publication EthicsWAME resourcesWMA policies and ORI) if any ethical misconduct is suspected.

In accordance with the Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences’ policy, an approval of research protocols by an ethics committee in accordance with international agreements “WMA Declaration of Helsinki - Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects , "Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals (8th edition, 2011)" and/or “International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals (2012)” is required for all research studies. If the submitted manuscript does not include ethics committee approval, it will be reviewed according to COPE's guideline (Guidance for Editors: Research, Audit and Service Evaluations). If the study should have ethical approval, authors will be asked to provide ethical approval in order to proceed the review process. If they cannot provide ethical approval, their manuscript will be rejected and their institutions and when needed, the related bodies in their country, will be informed that such studies must have ethics committee approval. If they provide approval, review of the manuscript will continue.

If the study does not need ethics committee approval after the editorial board’s review, the authors will be asked to provide an ethics committee approval or a document given by a related independent committee that indicates the study does not need ethics committee approval according to the research integrity rules in their country. If the authors provide either an approval or a document showing that ethics approval is not needed, the review process can be continued. If the authors cannot provide either documents, the manuscript may be rejected.

For articles concerning experimental research on humans, a statement should be included that shows informed consent of patients and volunteers was obtained following a detailed explanation of the procedures that they may undergo. The journal may request a copy of the Ethics Committee Approval received from the relevant authority. Informed consent must also be obtained for case reports.

Peer review
The journal committed to peer-review integrity and upholding the highest standards of review. Once your paper has been assessed for suitability by the editor, it will then be double blind peer-reviewed by anonymous expert referees.

All manuscripts submitted for publication are strictly reviewed for their originality, methodology, importance, quality, ethics and suitability for Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. The editor-in-chief and academic editor has full authority over the editorial and scientific content of the Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the timing of publication of the content.

Conflict of Interest Policy
The Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences ’s editorial review process is in accordance with the Good Editorial Practice set by international editorial organizations (ICMJEEASEWAMECOPECSE,…). WAME indicates that “conflict of interest exists when an author, reviewer, or editor in the publication process (submission of manuscripts, peer review, editorial decisions, and communication between authors, reviewers and editors) has a competing interest that could unduly influence his or her responsibilities (academic honesty, unbiased conduct and reporting of research, and integrity of decisions or judgments) in the publication process”.

The journal requires that each author, reviewer, and editor must disclose to the editor any conflict of interest related to family, personal, financial, political, or religious issues as well as any competing interest outlined above at the WAME’s definition. Whether or not a conflict of interest and financial support exist, they must be declared at the ICMJE Conflict of Interest form as well as at the end of the manuscripts. If a reviewer, or anyone in editorial team has a conflict of interest and/or believes that it is not appropriate to be a reviewer, or an editor for a given manuscript, the reviewer or the editor should resign from the assignment. The Editorial Board members of the Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, who handle submissions and recommend decisions to the Editor in chief (EIC, Managing Editor and Section Editors) may also submit their own manuscripts to the journal as all of them are active researchers and scientists but they cannot take place at any stage on the editorial decision of their manuscripts in order to minimize any possible bias. They will be treated like any other author.

Due to the Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences’ double-blinded review principles, the names of authors and reviewers are not known to the other. Authors should not contact any member of the editorial board during the review process. However, the names of the handling editor and the reviewers are not given to the author(s).

Subscriptions and Permissions
The following link can be used to access free full-text articles:  http://pcpjournal.net/; with no charge. Permission required for use any published under CC BY-NC-ND license with commercial purposes (selling, etc.) to protect copyright owner and author rights.

Article Processing Charge
The standard article processing fee (APC) for this journal is: $750. Depending on your location, these charges may be subject to local taxes. Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences is also offering free APCs for submissions where the corresponding author resides in Turkey at the time of submission.

Preparing Your Manuscript
We also refer authors to the community standards explicit in the American Psychological Association's (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct and in accordance with the ICMJE-Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (updated in December 2019- http://www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf) Papers that do not comply with the format of the Journal will be returned to the author for correction without further review. Therefore, in order to avoid loss of time, authors must very carefully review the submission rules.

General Format
The manuscript should be in a Microsoft Word™ file, single-column format, double-spaced with 2.5 cm margins on each side, and 11-point type in Times New Roman font. All abbreviations in the text must be defined the first time they are used (both in the abstract and the main text), and the abbreviations should be displayed in parentheses after the definition. Abbreviations should be limited to those defined in the AMA Manual of Style, current edition. Authors should avoid abbreviations in the title and abstract and limit their use in the main text. Decimal points should be used in decimals throughout the manuscript. Measurements should be reported using the metric system according to the International System of Units (SI). Consult the SI Unit Conversion Guide, New England Journal of Medicine Books, 1992. An extensive list of conversion factors can be found at  http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/units/ . For more detail, see  http://www.amamanualofstyle.com/oso/public/jama/si_conversion_table.html
When a drug, product, hardware, or software mentioned within the main text product information, including the name of the product, producer of the product, city of the company and the country of the company should be provided in parenthesis in the following format: “Discovery St PET/CT scanner (General Electric, Milwaukee, WI, USA)”


Article Type
Identification of article type is the first step of manuscript submission because article type dictates the guidelines that should be used (see below, Using Guidelines), including formatting and word limits of the manuscript. This journal accepts the following article types: Original Article, Review Article, Case Report, Letter to Editors, Editorial and Short Communication/ Brief Report.

PREPARATION OF THE MANUSCRIPT
Title page
A separate title page should be submitted with all submissions and this page should include:
  • Full names of authors (only English characters and no academic titles)
  • Complete institutional addresses
  • E-mail address and phone number of corresponding author
·  Updated and available public ORCID IDs of all authors
·  The full title of the manuscript
·  Acknowledgment of the individuals who contributed to the preparation of the manuscript but who do not full fill the authorship criteria.

Abstract
An abstract should accompany all submissions except for Letters to the Editor and editorials.  The abstract of Original Articles should be structured with subheadings (Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusion).

Graphical abstracts are highly recommended. A graphical abstract is a single and visual summary of the main findings of the article. This could either be the concluding figure from the article or a figure that is specially designed to captures the content of the article for readers at a single glance. It will not appear in the article PDF but will be displayed in journal home page.

Please check the table below for word count specifications.

Type of manuscript

Word limit (Min-Max)

Abstract word limit

Reference limit

Table limit

Figure limit

Original Article

3500-50001

200-2503

(Structured)

30

6

7 or total of 10 images

Review Article

4000-60001

200-250

50

6

10 or total of 15 images

Case Report

1000-20001

100-150

15

No tables

1 or total of 3 images

Brief Report

25001

200-250

20

6

5 or total of 10 images

Letter to the Editor

 500-10002

No abstract

5

No tables

 No figures

Editorial

1500-30002

No abstract

20

5

5 or total of 10 images

1This should not include the abstract, references, tables or figure legends.

2This should include the figure legends.
3 Should be structured with the following subheadings: Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusion

 

Keywords
Each submission must be accompanied by a minimum of three to a maximum of six keywords for subject indexing at the end of the abstract. The keywords should be listed in full without abbreviations. The keywords should be selected from the National Library of Medicine, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) database (https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html).

Introduction
This section should contain a clear statement of the general and specific objectives of the study, as well as the hypotheses that the work is designed to test. It should also give a brief account of the reported literature. The last sentence should clearly state the primary and secondary purposes of the article. References related to the issues raised must be indicated. Data or findings from the current study must not be included in this section.

Methods
This section should contain explicit, concise descriptions of all procedures, materials and methods used in the investigation to enable the reader to judge their accuracy, reproducibility, etc. This section should include the known findings at the beginning of the study. Findings from the current study must be reported in the results section. The selection and description of the participants. The selection, population source, inclusion and exclusion criteria of the subjects who participated in experimental or clinical studies must be clearly defined in this section. The particular study sample must be explained by the authors (i.e., why the study was performed in a definite age, race or gender population, etc.).

The methods, apparatus (the manufacturer’s name and address in parentheses), and procedures must be described in sufficient detail to allow others to reproduce the results. References to established methods, including statistical methods (see below) must be given. Brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known must be provided. New or substantially modified methods must be described, the reasons for using them must be given, and the limitations of the methods must be evaluated. All drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration must be identified. Authors submitting review manuscripts should include a section describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing data. These methods should also be summarized in the abstract.

Statistical Analysis
The statistical methods must be described with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. If possible, findings should be quantified and presented with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Relying solely on statistical hypothesis testing, such as P values, which fail to convey important information about effect size must be avoided. References for the design of the study and statistical methods should be to standard works when possible (with pages stated). Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols. The computer software used must be specified.

Results
The results should be presented in logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations, giving the main or most important findings first. Data in the tables or illustrations should not be repeated in the text; only the most important observations should be emphasized or summarized in the text. Extra or supplementary materials and technical detail can be placed in an appendix where they will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text, or they can be published solely in the electronic version of the journal. When data are summarized in the Results section, numeric results should be given not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and the statistical methods used to analyze them should be specified. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess supporting data. Graphs should be used as an alternative to tables with many entries; data should not be duplicated in graphs and tables.

Discussion
The findings of the study which support or do not support the hypothesis of the study should be discussed, results should be compared and contrasted with findings of other studies in the literature and the differences from other studies should be explained. The new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them should be emphasized. The data or other information given in the Introduction or the Results section should not be repeated in detail. For experimental studies, it is useful to begin the discussion by summarizing briefly the main findings, then explore possible mechanisms or explanations for these findings, compare and contrast the results with other relevant studies, state the limitations of the study, and explore the implications of the findings for future research and for clinical practice. The conclusions should be linked with the goals of the study, but unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data should be avoided. New hypotheses should be stated when warranted but should be labelled clearly as such.

Tables, graphics, and figures
Tables, graphics (colored) and figures (colored) should be numbered in Arabic numerals rather than Roman in the text. The placement of the illustrations should be indicated in the text.

Tables
Tables should present new information rather than duplicating what is in the text. Readers should be able to interpret the table without reference to the text. Please supply editable files. Tables display information concisely and display it efficiently; they also provide information at any desired level of detail and precision. Each table should be single spaced, and tables should be numbered consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and a brief title for each table should be supplied. Internal horizontal or vertical lines should be used. A short or an abbreviated heading should be given to each column. Authors should place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. All nonstandard abbreviations should be explained in footnotes, and the following symbols should be used in sequence: *,†,‡,§,||,¶,**,††,‡‡
The statistical measures of variations, such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean, should be identified. Be sure that each table is cited in the text. If you use data from another published or unpublished source, obtain permission and acknowledge that source fully.


Figures
Figures should be either professionally drawn and photographed or submitted as digital prints in photographic-quality and preferentially colored (1200 dpi for line art, 600 dpi for grayscale and 300 dpi for color, at the correct size). In addition to providing a version of the figures suitable for printing, authors are asked for electronic files of figures in a format (for example, JPEG or GIF). Authors should review the images of such files on a computer screen before submitting them to be sure that they meet their own quality standards. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background. Photographs of potentially identifiable people must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph.

Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been cited in the text. If a figure has been published previously, the original source should be acknowledged and written permission from the copyright holder should be submitted to reproduce the figure. Permission is required irrespective of authorship or publisher except for documents in the public domain.


Legends for Figures
The legends for illustrations should be typed or printed using single spacing, starting on a separate page, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, each one should be identified clearly and explained in the legend. The internal scale should be explained and the method of staining in photomicrographs should be identified.

Units of Measurement
Measurements of length, height, weight, and volume should be reported in metric units (meter, kilogram, or liter) or their decimal multiples. Temperatures should be in degrees Celsius, blood pressures should be in millimeter of mercury. Authors should report laboratory information in both local and the International System of Units (SI). Drug concentrations may be reported in either SI or mass units, but the alternative should be provided in parentheses where appropriate.

Abbreviations and Symbols
Use only standard abbreviations; use of nonstandard abbreviations can be confusing to readers. Avoid abbreviations in the title of the manuscript. The spelled-out abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be used on first mention unless the abbreviation is a standard unit of measurement.

Acknowledgements
All forms of support, including individual technical support, material support, funding agency and grant number must be acknowledged in the author’s footnote before the references.

References
Although references to review articles can be an efficient way to guide readers to a body of literature, review articles do not always reflect original work accurately. Readers should therefore be provided with direct references to original research sources whenever possible. On the other hand, extensive lists of references to original work on a topic can use excessive space on the printed page. Small numbers of references to key original papers often serve as well as more exhaustive lists, particularly since references can now be added to the electronic version of published papers, and since electronic literature searching allows readers to retrieve published literature efficiently. Using abstracts as references should be avoided. References to papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as “in press” or “forthcoming”; authors should obtain written permission to cite such papers as well as verification that they have been accepted for publication. Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as “unpublished observations” with written permission from the source.

Citing a “personal communication” should be avoided unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text. For scientific articles, written permission, and confirmation of accuracy from the source of a personal communication must be obtained. Personal experiences and unpublished papers should not be used as references. – While preparing references one should review the examples of references in the journal and special attention should be paid to the punctuation.


Reference Style and Format
The Uniform Requirements style for references is based largely on an American National Standards Institute style adapted by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) for its databases.
References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in the list of Journals in NLM Catalog (
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog?term=currentlyindexed%5BAll%5D). Accuracy of citation is the author’s responsibility. All references should be cited in the text and the DOI numbers should be provided (ie. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2016.05.017).
Authors are recommended to use  EndNote output style  or Mendeley to format the references when preparing your paper.

EXAMPLES:
ARTICLES:
Storr M, Devlin S, Kaplan GG, Panaccione R, Andrews CN. Cannabis use provides symptom relief in patients with inflammatory bowel disease but is associated with worse disease prognosis in patients with Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014;20(3):472‐480. doi: 10.1097/01.MIB.0000440982.79036.d6.

Articles in Turkish (or language other than English):
Esel E,Kula M, Gonul AS, Tutus A, Basturk M, Turan T, et al. Relationship of negative and positive symptoms with regional brain blood flow in drug-naive schizophrenia patients. Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bulteni-Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2000;10(2):57-63 [Turkish].
Supplement Issue Articles:
Wasylenski DA. The cost of schizophrenia. Can J Psychiatry 1994;39(Suppl.2):S65-S69.
Article in Press:
Littlewhite HB, Donald JA. Pulmonary blood flow regulation in an aquatic snake. Science 2002 (in Press).

TEXTBOOKS & BOOK CHAPTERS:

Written by one author:
Kayaalp SO. From the Perspective of Rational Therapy: Medical Pharmacology. 12th ed., Ankara, Pelican Medical and Technical Publishing; 2009. p. 68-78 [Turkish]
Written by more than one author:
Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical Microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.
Chapter reviewed by more than one editor:
Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, eds.The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.
Translated book:
Doğan Y, Özden A, İzmir M (Translation editors), Treatment Options of Alcohol and Substance Abuse. Milkman HB, Sederer LI, eds. Ankara: Ankara University Publishing; 1999.p.79-96.

THESIS:
Ulusoy M. Beck Anxiety Inventory: The study of validity and reliability. Postgraduate thesis. Bakırkoy Research and Training Hospital for Mental and Nervous Diseases, Istanbul, 1993 [Turkish].

CONGRESS ABSTRACT BOOKS:
Felek S, Kilic SS, Akbulut A, Yildiz M. Fligelloz halüsinasyonla a visual phenomenon of watching. XXVI. Turkish Microbiology Congress, Abstract Book, 22-27 September 2000, Antalya, Mars Press, p. 53-66.

INTERNET SOURCES:
WHO Official Updates - Coronavirus Disease 2019. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen (accessed July 6, 2020)
 


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