E-ISSN 2636-834X
 

Original Research 


Psychopathology and Depression in the Middle East

Kemal Sayar, Samet Kose.

Cited by (1)

Abstract
Psychotherapy methods are mostly constructed by the Western societies and thus they might fail to address the social and cultural differences of other, non-Western societies. Different social and cultural factors account for the development of different norms in non-Western countries. Psychiatrists should take into account that there are different signs of psychological wellness and psychopathology in non-Western societies. Such social and cultural differences are considered to be underlying factors of different forms of psychopathologies that are predominantly observed in clinical settings among the Middle Eastern patients. Therefore, psychiatrists should consider to administer the most appropriate therapeutic techniques based on such social and cultural differences. Authors also discuss the impact of medicalization of human suffering, reification of illness categories, and loss of moral meaning of being.

Key words: psychopathology, depression, psychotherapy, modernization, sadness


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Kemal Sayar
Articles by Samet Kose
on Google
on Google Scholar


REFERENCES
1. Abi-Hashem N. (2006) The Agony, silent grief, and deep frustration of many communities in the middle east (In) Handbook of Multicultural Perspectives on Stress and Coping (eds. Wong P. & Wong L.) Springer [DOI via Crossref]   
2. Said E. (1978) Orientalism. Vintage Books.
3. Hentsch T. (1996) Imagining the Middle East. Black Rose Books.
4. Dols M. (1992) Majnoon, The Madman in Medival Islamic Society. Clarendon Press. [DOI via Crossref]   
5. Songar A. (1974) Ilim-Kultur ve Sanatta Gercek, Istanbul, Vol.7, No: 3 P. 39-40
6. Shefer-Mossensohn M. (2009) Ottoman Medicine: Healing and Medical Institutions. State University of New York Press, Albany, New York.
7. Karam E.G, Howard D.B., Karam A.N., Ashkar A., Shaaya M., Melhem N., El-Khoury N. Major depression and external stressors: the Lebanon Wars. European Archives of Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience 1998;248:225-30. [DOI via Crossref]   
8. Karam E.G., Mneimneh Z.N., Karam A.N., Fayyad J.A., Nasser S.C., Chatterji S., Kessler R.C. Prevalence and treatment of mental disorders in Lebanon: a national epidemiological survey The Lancet 2006;367:1000–1006.
9. Al-Krenawi A., Graham J.R., Dean Y.Z., Eltaiba N. Cross-national study of attitudes towards seeking professional help: Jordan, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Arabs in Israel. The International journal of social psychiatry 2004;50:102-14. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
10. El-Sarraj I. (1991) The Palestinians: under occupation (In): Mental Health Services in the Global Village (eds L. Appleby & R. Araya), 109-114. London: Gaskell.
11. Murad I. & Gordon H. Psychiatry and the Palestinian population. Psychiatric Bulletin 2002;26:28-30 [DOI via Crossref]   
12. Greene, R.A (2005). War takes toll on Iraqi mental health. 12 August. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4620279.stm
13. Al-Ashhab B. An update on mental health services in the West Bank. Israel Journal of Psychiatry 2005;42:81–83.
14. Ozturk, O. M. (1964) “Folk Treatment of Mental Illness in Turkey.” (In) Magic, Faith, and Healing, Ari Kiev, editor, New York: The Free Press.
15. Elliott C. (2003) Better Than Well: American Medicine Meets The American Dream. WW Norton Press.
16. Shoaib K. & Peel J. Kashmiri women’s perceptions of their emotional and psychological needs, and access to counselling. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research 2003;3:87–94.
17. Good M.J., Good B.J., Moradi R. (1984) The Interpretation of Iranian Depressive Illness and Dysphoric Affect (In) Culture and Depression (eds. Kleinman A. & Good B.) University of California Press
18. Hamdi E., Yousreya A. & Abou-Saleh M. T. Problems in validating endogenous depression in the Arab culture by contemporary diagnostic criteria. Journal of Affective Disorders 1997;44:131–143.
19. Sulaiman S., Bhugra D. & De Silva P. Perception of depression in a community sample in Dubai. Transcultural Psychiatry 2001;38:201–218.
20. Mirdal, G.M. The condition of ‘tightness’ : the somatic complaints of Turkish migrant women. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1985;71:287-296. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
21. Baarnhielm S. & Ekblad S. Turkish migrant women encountering health care in Stockholm : A qualitative study of somatization and illness meaning. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 2000;24:431-452. [DOI via Crossref]   
22. Mac Phee M.J. Medicine for the Heart: The Embodiment of Faith in Morocco. Medical Anthropology 2003;22:53-83. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
23. Bhugra D. (1996) Psychiatry and Religion: Context, Consensus and Controversies. Routledge Press. [DOI via Crossref]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
24. Kirmayer, L.J. & Young A. Culture and Somatization: Clinical, Epidemiological, and Ethnographic Perspectives. Psychosomatic Medicine 1998;60:420-430. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
25. Bhugra D. & Mastogianni, A. Globalisation and mental disorders. The British Journal of Psychiatry 2004;184:10-20. [DOI via Crossref]   
26. El Leithy W. (2000) Arab psychotherapy (In) Images in Psychiatry: An Arab Perspective (eds A. Okasha & M. Maj), pp. 247-254. World Psychiatric Association.
27. Okasha, A. Focus on psychiatry in Egypt. British Journal of Psychiatry 2004;185:266-272. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
28. El-Islam M.F. A better outlook for schizophrenics living in extended families. British Journal of Psychiatry 1979;135:343. [DOI via Crossref]   
29. Taþkýn E.O., Sen F.S., Aydemir O., Demet M.M., Ozmen E., Icelli I. Public attitudes to schizophrenia in rural Turkey. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry 2003;15:47-55.
30. Saðduyu A. An Epidemiologic Investigation of the Public’s Attitudes Towards Schizophrenia. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry 2001;12:99-110.
31. Saðduyu A. Relatives beliefs and attitudes toward schizophrenia: an epidemiological investigation. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry 2003;14:203-12.
32. Sayar K., Kirmayer, L.J. Taillefer, S. Somatic Symptom Reporting in Depressed Outpatients. General Hospital Psychiatry 2003;25:108-114. [DOI via Crossref]   
33. El-Islam F. M. Depression and guilt: study at an Arab psychiatric clinic. Social Psychiatry 1969;4:56–58.
34. El-Islam M.F., Moussa M.A., Malasi T.H., Suleiman M.A., Mirza I.A. Assessment of depression in Kuwait by principal component analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders 1988;14:109–114.
35. Kirmayer, L.J. Psychopharmacology in a globalizing world: The use of antidepressants in Japan. Transcultural Psychiatry 2002;39:295-312. [DOI via Crossref]   
36. Lock, M. (1993) Knowledge, Power and Practice: The Anthropology of Medicine and Everyday Life, edited with Shirley Lindenbaum. Berkeley: University of California Press.
37. Barks C. (1995) The Essential Rumi. Harper Collins. [PMC Free Fulltext]   
38. Bowring J. (2008) A Field Guide to Melancholy. Oldcastle Books, UK. [Pubmed]   
39. Pamuk, O. (2005) Istanbul : Memoirs of a city. Vintage Publishing.
40. Shafii M. (2008) Sufi Perspective on Human Suffering and its Relief (In) The Crescent and the Couch (ed Salman Akhtar), Jason Aronson, NY.
41. Sviri S. (2002) The Taste of Hidden Things Golden Sufi Center, California.
42. Sayar K. & Isik H. (2006) Somatoform Disorders (In) Guncel Klinik Psikiyatri 269-289 Golden Print Press, Ankara.
43. Maghoub, O.M. & Abdel Hafeiz H.B. Pattern of obsessivecompulsive disorder in eastern Saudi Arabia. The British Journal of Psychiatry 1991;158:840-2. [DOI via Crossref]   
44. Shooka A., Al- Haddad M.K., Raessa A. OCD in Bahrain: a phenomenological profile. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 1998;44:147-54. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
45. Egrilmez A., Gulseren L., Gulseren S., Kultur S. Phenomenology of obsessions in a Turkish Series of OCD Patients. Psychopathology 1997;30:106-110. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
46. Tezcan, E. & Millet, B. Obsessive-compulsive disorder phenomenology: Forms and Contents of obsessions and compulsions in East Turkey. L’ Encéphale 1997;23:342-50. [Pubmed]   
47. Tek C. & Ulug B. Religiosity and religious obsessions in obsessivecompulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research 2001;104:99-108. [DOI via Crossref]   
48. Karadag F., Oguzhanoglu N.K., Ozdel O., Atesci F.C., Amuk T. OCD symptoms in a sample of Turkish patients: a phenomenological picture. Depression and Anxiety 2006;23:145-52. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
49. Ghassemzadeh H , Mojtabai R, Khamseh A, Ebrahimkhani N, Issazadegan AA, Saif-Nobakht Z. Symptoms of obsessivecompulsive disorder in a sample of Iranian patients. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 2000;48:20-28. [DOI via Crossref]   
50. El-Islam M.F. (2000) Social psychiatry and the impact of religion. (In) Images in Psychiatry: An Arab Perspective (eds A. Okasha & M. Maj), pp. 21 -36. World Psychiatric Association.
51. Gordon H. & Murad I. Psychiatry and the Palestinian population. The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences 2005;42:73-80.
52. Watters E. (2010) Crazy Like Us: The Globalization of the American psyche. Free Press, NY.
53. Conrad P. (2007) The Medicalization of Society. Johns Hopkins University Press.

This Article Cited By the following articles

Exploring the Representation of Depressive Symptoms and the Influence of Stigma in Arabic-Speaking Refugee Outpatients
Front. Psychiatry 2020; 11(): .

1
 
How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Kemal Sayar, Samet Kose. Psychopathology and Depression in the Middle East. PBS. 0; 0(0): -. doi:10.5455/jmood.20111217094801


Web Style

Kemal Sayar, Samet Kose. Psychopathology and Depression in the Middle East. http://www.pbsciences.org/?mno=11748 [Access: September 29, 2021]. doi:10.5455/jmood.20111217094801


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Kemal Sayar, Samet Kose. Psychopathology and Depression in the Middle East. PBS. 0; 0(0): -. doi:10.5455/jmood.20111217094801



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Kemal Sayar, Samet Kose. Psychopathology and Depression in the Middle East. PBS. (0), [cited September 29, 2021]; 0(0): -. doi:10.5455/jmood.20111217094801



Harvard Style

Kemal Sayar, Samet Kose (0) Psychopathology and Depression in the Middle East. PBS, 0 (0), -. doi:10.5455/jmood.20111217094801



Turabian Style

Kemal Sayar, Samet Kose. 0. Psychopathology and Depression in the Middle East. Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 0 (0), -. doi:10.5455/jmood.20111217094801



Chicago Style

Kemal Sayar, Samet Kose. "Psychopathology and Depression in the Middle East." Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences 0 (0), -. doi:10.5455/jmood.20111217094801



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Kemal Sayar, Samet Kose. "Psychopathology and Depression in the Middle East." Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences 0.0 (0), -. Print. doi:10.5455/jmood.20111217094801



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Kemal Sayar, Samet Kose (0) Psychopathology and Depression in the Middle East. Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 0 (0), -. doi:10.5455/jmood.20111217094801