E-ISSN 2636-834X
 

Original Research 


Depression in Children and Adolescents with Tension Type Headache May Not Be Related with Vitamin D and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies

Rezzan Aydin Gorucu, Ayse Nihal Eraslan, Rukiye Colak Sivri, Zeynep Goker, Arzu Yilmaz.

Abstract
Objective: Aim of this study was to investigate relation between serum 25 (OH) vitamin D or B12 levels and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents with tension-type headache (TTH).

Methods: Electronic records of children and adolescents diagnosed with TTH in a training and research hospital child neurology department between March 2018 and August 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, subjects with depression diagnosed based on DSM-5 criteria and its symptoms obtained via Children depression inventory (CDI) and Beck depression inventory (BDI) found in records were collected. Vitamin D deficiency is defined if its serum levels are below 20 ng/mL, and Vitamin B12 deficiency as below 203 pg/mL. SPSS 17.0 was used for analyses and p<.05 was considered as significant.

Results: Of 74 subjects with TTH were included. Mean age of all was 14.3 years (9-17) and 81.1% of all were girls. Of 16.2% of them had depression based on DSM-5 criteria. The mean CDI scale was 12.9 (2-32) and BDI scale was 19.3 (9-40). Mean serum level of vitamin D was 14.4 ng/mL (range= 3.80-46.6 ng/mL) and 73% of them had Vitamin D deficiency. Mean serum vitamin B12 levels were 291.3 pg/mL (range= 123.5-792) and 20.3% of them had its “deficiency”. There was no significant relation between vitamin deficiencies and having depression or being adolescent (for all variables p>.05). There was also not any significant correlation between two vitamin levels and depressive symptoms based on CDI and BDI. There was, however, a relation between being girl and vitamin deficiencies, which 88.9% of all vitamin D deficient cases (48/54, 2(1) = 7.192, p = .016, Fisher’s exact test), and 60% of vitamin B12 deficient subjects (9/15, 2(1) = 5.451, p = .030, Fisher’s exact test) were girls. Correlation analyses revealed that age (years) has significant negative correlation with vitamin B12 (Spearman rho=-.352, p= .002), and positive correlation with CDI (Spearman rho=.282, p=.039). There was another negative correlation found between vitamin D and BDI (Spearman rho=-.499, p=.041).

Conclusions: Girls with TTH would be evaluated for vitamin D and B12 levels. Being adolescents might have effect on vitamin B12 intake and on depression symptoms.

Key words: TTH, vitamin D, B12, adolescent, depression, DSM-5


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

RAG, Eraslan AN, Sivri RC, Goker Z, Yilmaz A. Depression in Children and Adolescents with Tension Type Headache May Not Be Related with Vitamin D and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies. PBS. 2020; 10(1): 18-24. doi:10.5455/PBS.20190802122307


Web Style

RAG, Eraslan AN, Sivri RC, Goker Z, Yilmaz A. Depression in Children and Adolescents with Tension Type Headache May Not Be Related with Vitamin D and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies. https://www.pbsciences.org/?mno=59770 [Access: December 15, 2023]. doi:10.5455/PBS.20190802122307


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

RAG, Eraslan AN, Sivri RC, Goker Z, Yilmaz A. Depression in Children and Adolescents with Tension Type Headache May Not Be Related with Vitamin D and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies. PBS. 2020; 10(1): 18-24. doi:10.5455/PBS.20190802122307



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

RAG, Eraslan AN, Sivri RC, Goker Z, Yilmaz A. Depression in Children and Adolescents with Tension Type Headache May Not Be Related with Vitamin D and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies. PBS. (2020), [cited December 15, 2023]; 10(1): 18-24. doi:10.5455/PBS.20190802122307



Harvard Style

, R. A. G., Eraslan, . A. N., Sivri, . R. C., Goker, . Z. & Yilmaz, . A. (2020) Depression in Children and Adolescents with Tension Type Headache May Not Be Related with Vitamin D and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies. PBS, 10 (1), 18-24. doi:10.5455/PBS.20190802122307



Turabian Style

, Rezzan Aydin Gorucu, Ayse Nihal Eraslan, Rukiye Colak Sivri, Zeynep Goker, and Arzu Yilmaz. 2020. Depression in Children and Adolescents with Tension Type Headache May Not Be Related with Vitamin D and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies. Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 10 (1), 18-24. doi:10.5455/PBS.20190802122307



Chicago Style

, Rezzan Aydin Gorucu, Ayse Nihal Eraslan, Rukiye Colak Sivri, Zeynep Goker, and Arzu Yilmaz. "Depression in Children and Adolescents with Tension Type Headache May Not Be Related with Vitamin D and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies." Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences 10 (2020), 18-24. doi:10.5455/PBS.20190802122307



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

, Rezzan Aydin Gorucu, Ayse Nihal Eraslan, Rukiye Colak Sivri, Zeynep Goker, and Arzu Yilmaz. "Depression in Children and Adolescents with Tension Type Headache May Not Be Related with Vitamin D and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies." Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences 10.1 (2020), 18-24. Print. doi:10.5455/PBS.20190802122307



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

, R. A. G., Eraslan, . A. N., Sivri, . R. C., Goker, . Z. & Yilmaz, . A. (2020) Depression in Children and Adolescents with Tension Type Headache May Not Be Related with Vitamin D and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies. Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 10 (1), 18-24. doi:10.5455/PBS.20190802122307